SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2021
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES|
|NOTE 2 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 2 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The Company’s accounting policies and accompanying consolidated financial statements conform to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP).
These financial statements have been prepared on the accrual basis of accounting.
Basis of presentation and principles of consolidation
The Company’s consolidated financial statements present the consolidated accounts of FRHC, Freedom RU, Freedom Bank RU, Freedom KZ, Freedom Global, Freedom Bank KZ, Freedom EU, Freedom GE, Freedom UZ, PrimeEx, Freedom Technologies, Freedom AZ, FFIN and Freedom UA. All significant inter-company balances and transactions have been eliminated from the consolidated financial statements.
Consolidation of variable interest entities
In accordance with accounting standards regarding consolidation of variable interest entities (“VIEs”), VIEs are generally entities that lack sufficient equity to finance their activities without additional financial support from other parties or whose equity holders lack adequate decision making ability. VIEs must be evaluated to determine the primary beneficiary of the risks and rewards of the VIE. The primary beneficiary is required to consolidate the VIE for financial reporting purposes.
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Management believes that the estimates utilized in preparing the Company’s financial statements are reasonable and prudent. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Revenue and expense recognition
Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC Topic 606”), establishes principles for reporting information about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from the entity’s contracts to provide goods or services to customers. The core principle requires an entity to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services promised to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that it expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for those goods or services recognized as performance obligations are satisfied. A significant portion of the Company’s revenue-generating transactions are not subject to ASC Topic 606, including revenue generated from financial instruments, such as loans and investment securities, as these activities are subject to other U.S. GAAP guidance discussed elsewhere within these disclosures. Descriptions of the Company’s revenue-generating activities that are within the scope of ASC Topic 606, which are presented in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income as components of non-interest income are as follows:
Under Topic 606, the Company is required to recognize incentive fees when they are probable and there is not a significant chance of reversal in the future. For the brokerage commission, banking service commission and investment banking services commission contracts in place at the time of adoption, this change in policy did not result in any actual change in revenue that had already been recognized and therefore there was no transition adjustment necessary.
The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with the core principle by applying the following steps:
Derivative financial instruments
In the normal course of business, the Company invests in various derivative financial contracts including futures. Derivatives are initially recognized at fair value at the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured to their fair value at each reporting date. The fair values are estimated based on quoted market prices or pricing models that take into account the current market and contractual prices of the underlying instruments and other factors. Derivatives are carried as assets when their fair value is positive and as liabilities when it is negative.
Management has adopted ASC 830, Foreign Currency Translation Matters as it pertains to its foreign currency translation. The Company’s functional currencies are the Russian ruble, European euro, U.S. dollar, Ukrainian hryvnia, Uzbekistani som, Kazakhstani tenge, Kyrgyzstani som and the Azerbaijani manat, and its reporting currency is the U.S. dollar. For financial reporting purposes, foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars as the reporting currency. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars using the exchange rate prevailing at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at rates of exchange in effect at the date of the transaction. Average monthly rates are used to translate revenues and expenses. Translation adjustments arising from the use of different exchange rates from period to period are included as a component of stockholders’ equity as “Accumulated other comprehensive loss”.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents are generally comprised of certain highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase. Cash and cash equivalents include reverse repurchase agreements which are recorded at the amounts at which the securities were acquired or sold plus accrued interest.
Securities reverse repurchase and repurchase agreements
A reverse repurchase agreement is a transaction in which the Company purchases financial instruments from a seller, typically in exchange for cash, and simultaneously enters into an agreement to resell the same or substantially the same financial instruments to the seller for an amount equal to the cash or other consideration exchanged plus interest at a future date. Securities purchased under reverse repurchase agreements are accounted for as collateralized financing transactions and are recorded at the contractual amount for which the securities will be resold, including accrued interest. Financial instruments purchased under reverse repurchase agreements are recorded in the financial statements as cash placed on deposit collateralized by securities and classified as cash and cash equivalents in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
A repurchase agreement is a transaction in which the Company sells financial instruments to another party, typically in exchange for cash, and simultaneously enters into an agreement to reacquire the same or substantially the same financial instruments from the buyer for an amount equal to the cash or other consideration exchanged plus interest at a future date. These agreements are accounted for as collateralized financing transactions. The Company retains the financial instruments sold under repurchase agreements and classifies them as trading securities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The consideration received under repurchase agreements is classified as securities repurchase agreement obligations in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The Company enters into reverse repurchase agreements, repurchase agreements, securities borrowed and securities loaned transactions to, among other things, acquire securities to leverage and grow its proprietary trading portfolio, cover short positions and settle other securities obligations, to accommodate customers’ needs and to finance its inventory positions. The Company enters into these transactions in accordance with normal market practice. Under standard terms for repurchase transactions, the recipient of collateral has the right to sell or repledge the collateral, subject to returning equivalent securities on settlement of the transaction.
Financial assets categorized as available-for-sale (“AFS”) are non-derivatives that are either designated as available-for-sale or not classified as (a) loans and receivables, (b) held to maturity investments or (c) trading securities.
Listed shares and listed redeemable notes held by the Company that are traded in an active market are classified as AFS and are stated at fair value. The Company has investments in unlisted shares that are not traded in an active market but that are also classified as investments AFS and stated at fair value (because Company management considers that fair value can be reliably measured). Gains and losses arising from changes in fair value are recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in the Accumulated other comprehensive loss, with the exception of other-than-temporary impairment losses, interest calculated using the effective interest method, dividend income and foreign exchange gains and losses are recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income. Where the investment is disposed of or is determined to be impaired, the cumulative gain or loss previously accumulated in the investments revaluation reserve is reclassified to profit or loss.
Financial assets are classified as trading securities if the financial asset has been acquired principally for the purpose of selling it in the near term.
Trading securities are stated at fair value, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognized in revenue. Changes in fair value are recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income and included in net gain on trading securities. Interest earned and dividend income are recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income and included in interest income, according to the terms of the contract and when the right to receive the payment has been established.
Investments in nonconsolidated managed funds are accounted for at fair value based on the net asset value of the funds provided by the fund managers with gains or losses included in net gain on trading securities in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income.
Debt securities issued
Debt securities issued are initially recognized at the fair value of the consideration received, less directly attributable transaction costs. Subsequently, amounts due are stated at amortized cost and any difference between net proceeds and the redemption value is recognized over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest method. If the Company purchases its own debt it is removed from the Consolidated Balance Sheets and the difference between the carrying amount of the liability and the consideration paid is recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income.
Brokerage and other receivables
Brokerage and other receivables comprise commissions and receivables related to the securities brokerage and banking activity of the Company. At initial recognition, brokerage and other receivables are recognized at fair value. Subsequently, brokerage and other receivables are carried at cost net of any allowance for impairment losses.
Derecognition of financial assets
A financial asset (or, where applicable a part of a financial asset or a part of a group of similar financial assets) is derecognized where all of the following conditions are met:
Where the Company has not met the asset derecognition conditions above, it continues to recognize the asset to the extent of its continuing involvement.
Impairment of long-lived assets
In accordance with the accounting guidance for the impairment or disposal of long-lived assets, the Company periodically evaluates the carrying value of long-lived assets to be held and used when events and circumstances warrant such a review. The carrying value of a long-lived asset is considered impaired when the fair value from such asset is less than its carrying value. In that event, a loss is recognized based on the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the fair value of the long-lived asset. Fair value is determined primarily using the anticipated cash flows discounted at a rate commensurate with the risk involved. Losses on long-lived assets to be disposed of are determined in a similar manner, except that fair values are reduced for the cost of disposal. As of March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company had not recorded any charges for impairment of long-lived assets.
Impairment of goodwill
As of March 31, 2021 and 2020, goodwill recorded in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets totaled $7,868 and $2,607, respectively. The Company performs an impairment review at least annually unless indicators of impairment exist in interim periods. The impairment test for goodwill uses a two-step approach. Step one compares the estimated fair value of a reporting unit with goodwill to its carrying value. If the carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value, step two must be performed. Step two compares the carrying value of the reporting unit to the fair value of all of the assets and liabilities of the reporting unit as if the reporting unit was acquired in a business combination. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit’s goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of its goodwill, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to the excess. In its annual goodwill impairment test, the Company estimated the fair value of the reporting unit based on the income approach (also known as the discounted cash flow method) and determined the fair value of the Company’s goodwill exceeded the carrying amount of the Company’s goodwill. The goodwill value as March 31, 2021 increased compared to March 31, 2020, due to acquisitions and foreign exchange currency translation.
The changes in the carrying amount of goodwill as of March 31, 2020 and for the year ended March 31, 2021, were as follows:
The Company recognizes deferred tax liabilities and assets based on the difference between the financial statements and tax basis of assets and liabilities using the enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The measurement of deferred tax assets is reduced, if necessary, by the amount of any tax benefits that, based on available evidence, are not expected to be realized.
Current income tax expenses are provided for in accordance with the laws of the relevant taxing authorities. As part of the process of preparing financial statements, the Company is required to estimate its income taxes in each of the jurisdictions in which it operates. The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability approach. Under this method, deferred income taxes are recognized for tax consequences in future years based on differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements at each year-end and tax loss carry forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates applicable for the differences that are expected to affect taxable income.
The Company will include interest and fines arising from the underpayment of income taxes in the provision for income taxes (if anticipated). As of March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company had no accrued interest or fines related to uncertain tax positions.
The Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”) provisions of the Tax Reform Act require the Company to include in its U.S. income tax return foreign subsidiary earnings in excess of an allowable return on the foreign subsidiary’s tangible assets. The Company has presented the deferred tax impacts of GILTI tax in its consolidated financial statements as of March 31, 2021 and 2020.
Financial instruments are carried at fair value as described below.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either in the principal market for the asset or liability, or in the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability. Fair value is the current bid price for financial assets, current ask price for financial liabilities and the average of current bid and ask prices when the Company is both in short and long positions for the financial instrument. A financial instrument is regarded as quoted in an active market if quoted prices are readily and regularly available from an exchange or other institution and those prices represent actual and regularly occurring market transactions on an arm’s length basis.
The Company adopted ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842),” which requires leases with durations greater than twelve months to be recognized on the balance sheet.
Operating lease assets and corresponding lease liabilities were recognized on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets. Refer to Note 26 - Leases, within the notes to consolidated financial statements for additional disclosure and significant accounting policies affecting leases.
Fixed assets are carried at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Maintenance, repairs, and minor renewals are expensed as incurred. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range between three and seven years.
The Company operates in a single operating segment offering financial services to its customers in a single geographic region covering Eurasia. The Company’s financial services business provides retail securities brokerage, research, investment counseling, securities trading, market making, corporate investment banking, underwriting and complementary banking services to its customers. The Company generates revenue from customers primarily from fee and commission income and interest income. The Company does not use profitability reports or other information disaggregated on a regional, country or divisional basis for making business decisions.
For the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company had expenses related to advertising in the amount of $6,897 and $5,635, respectively. All costs associated with advertising are expensed in the period incurred.
Recent accounting pronouncements
In June 2016 the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments”, which introduced an expected credit loss methodology for the impairment of financial assets measured at amortized cost basis. That methodology replaces the probable, incurred loss model for those assets. In November 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-10 “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), and Leases (Topic 842)”. The Board developed a philosophy to extend and simplify how effective dates are staggered between larger public companies (bucket one) and all other entities (bucket two). Those other entities include private companies, smaller public companies, not-for-profit organizations, and employee benefit plans. Under this philosophy, a major update would first be effective for bucket-one entities, that is, public business entities that are SEC filers, excluding entities eligible to be smaller reporting companies (SRCs) under the SEC’s definition. The Master Glossary of the Codification defines public business entities and SEC filers. All other entities, including SRCs, other public business entities, and nonpublic business entities (private companies, not-for-profit organizations, and employee benefit plans) would compose bucket two. For those entities, it is anticipated that the Board will consider requiring an effective date staggered at least two years after bucket one for major updates. The Company is currently an SRC and according to ASU 2019-10, qualifies for bucket two. Accordingly, ASU 2016-13 and ASU 2017-12 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2016-13 and 2017-12 will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2020 the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2020-06, “Debt - Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40)”: Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity.” This ASU amends FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC” or the “Codification”) to simplify the guidance on (1) accounting for convertible instruments, and (2) the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity. The Board issued this update to address issues identified as a result of the complexity associated with applying U.S. GAAP for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity. Complexity associated with the accounting is a significant contributing factor to numerous financial statement restatements and results in complexity for users attempting to understand the results of applying the current guidance. In addressing the complexity, the Board focused on amending the guidance on convertible instruments and the guidance on the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity. ASU 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after August 5, 2020. The Company does not expect that the new guidance will significantly impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In October 2020 the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2020-09, Debt (Topic 470): Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Release No. 33-10762, which amends various Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) paragraphs in the FASB Accounting Standards Codification based on the issuance of SEC Final Rulemaking Release No. 33-10762, Financial Disclosures about Guarantors and Issuers of Guaranteed Securities and Affiliates Whose Securities Collateralize a Registrant’s Securities. Release No. 33-10762 amends Rules 3-10, Financial Statements of Guarantors and Issuers of Guaranteed Securities Registered or Being Registered, and 3-16 of Regulation S-X, Financial Statements of Affiliates Whose Securities Collateralize an Issue Registered or Being Registered, both of which apply mainly to specific types of registered debt offerings. The amendments, which are the result of the SEC’s ongoing, comprehensive evaluation of its existing disclosure requirements, are intended to (1) make the disclosures required by the rules more useful to investors and to simplify and streamline the disclosure obligations imposed on registrants; (2) encourage issuers to offer registered guaranteed or collateralized securities, thereby potentially providing investors protection they may not be afforded in offerings conducted on an unregistered basis; and (3) increase the number of registered offerings that include guarantees as credit enhancements, which could result in a lower cost of capital for issuers and an increased level of protection for investors. ASU 2020-09 is effective for fiscal years beginning after January 4, 2021. The Company does not expect that the new guidance will significantly impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In January 2021 the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2021-01, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Scope, which clarifies that certain optional expedients and exceptions in Table of Contents link FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 848, Reference Rate Reform, for contract modifications and hedge accounting apply as well to derivatives that are affected by the changes in interest rates used for margining, discounting or contract price alignment (i.e., the discounting transition). Examples of such use include (1) rates used in interest rate swaps to compute the cash flows for the swap’s variable leg, (2) interest rate indexes used to discount the future cash flows of a derivative instrument to determine its fair value, and (3) the compensation or the interest amount earned on margin payments (i.e., contract price alignment). The amended guidance in ASU No. 2021-01 is effective immediately for all entities. The guidance may be applied on (1) a full retrospective basis as of any date from the beginning of an interim period that includes or is subsequent to March 12, 2020, or (2) a prospective basis to new modifications from any date within an interim period that includes or is subsequent to the date of the issuance of ASU No. 2021-01 through the date that financial statements are available to be issued. If any of the amendments are applied for an eligible hedging relationship, adjustments resulting therefrom must be reflected as of the date that the election is applied. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2021-01 will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In April 2021 the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2021-03, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other: Accounting Alternative for Evaluating Triggering Events, which provides private companies and not-for-profit organizations (NFPs) with an option to perform the identification and evaluation of a triggering event for goodwill impairment only as of the end of an interim or annual reporting period. Thus, upon election of the option, goodwill impairment triggering events are required to be monitored only as of the end of each reporting period, rather than as it now stands pursuant to Table of Contents link FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Subtopic 350-20, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Goodwill, when a triggering event occurs. ASU No. 2021-03 was issued in response to concerns by constituents (1) about the cost and complexity of evaluating triggering events and potentially measuring a goodwill impairment during the reporting period, rather than completing the analysis as of the end of the reporting period, and (2) that because some private companies perform the goodwill impairment analysis as part of their annual financial reporting process, it is difficult for such companies to determine whether there was a triggering event during the period and the date on which the triggering event occurred. The amended guidance is effective on a prospective basis for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted for both interim and annual financial statements that have not yet been issued or made available for issuance as of March 30, 2021 (i.e., the date that ASU No. 2021-03 was issued). The Company does not expect that the new guidance will significantly impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In May 2021 the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2021-04, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt-Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718), and Derivatives and Hedging-Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Issuer’s Accounting for Certain Modifications or Exchanges of Freestanding Equity-Classified Written Call Options, a consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) , which amends the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC or the “Codification”) to provide explicit guidance, and, thus, reduce diversity in practice, on accounting by issuers for modifications or exchanges of freestanding equity-classified written call options that remain equity classified after the modification or exchange. This amendment provides that for an entity that presents earnings per share (EPS) in accordance with Topic 260, the effects of a modification or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that is recognized as a dividend should be an adjustment to net income (or net loss) in the basic EPS calculation. The amended guidance becomes mandatorily effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and should be applied prospectively to modifications or exchanges occurring on or after the effective date. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2021-04 will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef