SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|9 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES|
|NOTE 2 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The Company’s accounting policies and accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements conform to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP).
These financial statements have been prepared on the accrual basis of accounting.
Basis of presentation and principles of consolidation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included. Operating results for the nine-month period ended December 31, 2020, are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021.
The Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet at December 31, 2020, has been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements at March 31, 2020, but does not include all the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements.
The Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements present the consolidated accounts of FRHC, Freedom RU, Zerich, FFIN Bank, Freedom KZ, Freedom Bank KZ; Prime Executions; Freedom Global, Freedom CY, Freedom Technologies, Freedom GE, Freedom UZ, FFIN and Freedom UA. All significant inter-company balances and transactions have been eliminated from the consolidated financial statements.
For further information, refer to the consolidated financial statements and footnotes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended March 31, 2020.
Consolidation of variable interest entities
In accordance with accounting standards regarding consolidation of VIEs, VIEs are generally entities that lack sufficient equity to finance their activities without additional financial support from other parties or whose equity holders lack adequate decision making ability. VIEs must be evaluated to determine the primary beneficiary of the risks and rewards of the VIE. The primary beneficiary is required to consolidate the VIE for financial reporting purposes.
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Management believes that the estimates utilized in preparing its financial statements are reasonable and prudent. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC Topic 606”), establishes principles for reporting information about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from the entity’s contracts to provide goods or services to customers. The core principle requires an entity to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services promised to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that it expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for those goods or services recognized as performance obligations are satisfied. A significant portion of the Company’s revenue-generating transactions are not subject to ASC Topic 606, including revenue generated from financial instruments, such as loans and investment securities, as these activities are subject to other U.S. GAAP guidance discussed elsewhere within these disclosures. Descriptions of the Company’s revenue-generating activities that are within the scope of ASC Topic 606, which are presented in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income as components of non-interest income are as follows:
Under ASC Topic 606, the Company is required to recognize incentive fees when they are probable and there is not a significant chance of reversal in the future.
The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with the core principle by applying the following steps:
Derivative financial instruments
In the normal course of business, the Company invests in various derivative financial contracts including futures. Derivatives are initially recognized at fair value at the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured to their fair value at each reporting date. The fair values are estimated based on quoted market prices or pricing models that take into account the current market and contractual prices of the underlying instruments and other factors. Derivatives are carried as assets when their fair value is positive and as liabilities when it is negative.
Management has adopted ASC 830, Foreign Currency Translation Matters, as it pertains to its foreign currency translation. The functional currencies of the Company’s subsidiaries are the Russian ruble, European euro, Ukrainian hryvnia, Uzbekistani som, Kazakhstani tenge and U.S. dollar. The Company’s reporting currency is the U.S. dollar. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars using the exchange rate prevailing at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at rates of exchange in effect at the date of the transaction. Average monthly rates are used to translate revenues and expenses. Gains and losses arising on translation or settlement of foreign currency denominated transactions or balances are included in “Other Comprehensive Income/(Loss).”
For financial reporting purposes, foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars as the reporting currency. Assets and liabilities are translated at the exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet dates. Revenues and expenses are translated at the average rate of exchange prevailing during the reporting period. Translation adjustments arising from the use of different exchange rates from period to period are included as a component of stockholders’ equity as “Accumulated other comprehensive loss.”
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents are generally comprised of certain highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase. Cash and cash equivalents include reverse repurchase agreements which are recorded at the amounts at which the securities were acquired or sold plus accrued interest.
Securities reverse repurchase and repurchase agreements
A reverse repurchase agreement is a transaction in which the Company purchases financial instruments from a seller, typically in exchange for cash, and simultaneously enters into an agreement to resell the same or substantially the same financial instruments to the seller for an amount equal to the cash or other consideration exchanged plus interest at a future date. Securities purchased under reverse repurchase agreements are accounted for as collateralized financing transactions and are recorded at the contractual amount for which the securities will be resold, including accrued interest. Financial instruments purchased under reverse repurchase agreements are recorded in the financial statements as cash placed on deposit collateralized by securities and classified as cash and cash equivalents in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
A repurchase agreement is a transaction in which the Company sells financial instruments to another party, typically in exchange for cash, and simultaneously enters into an agreement to reacquire the same or substantially the same financial instruments from the buyer for an amount equal to the cash or other consideration exchanged plus interest at a future date. These agreements are accounted for as collateralized financing transactions. The Company retains the financial instruments sold under repurchase agreements and classifies them as trading securities in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The consideration received under repurchase agreements is classified as securities repurchase agreement obligations in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The Company enters into reverse repurchase, repurchase, securities borrowed and securities loaned transactions to, among other things, acquire securities to leverage and grow its proprietary trading portfolio, cover short positions and settle other securities obligations, to accommodate customers’ needs and to finance its inventory positions. The Company enters into these transactions in accordance with normal market practice. Under standard terms for repurchase transactions, the recipient of collateral has the right to sell or repledge the collateral, subject to returning equivalent securities on settlement of the transaction.
Financial assets categorized as available-for-sale (“AFS”) are non-derivatives that are either designated as available-for-sale or not classified as (a) loans and receivables, (b) held-to-maturity securities or (c) trading securities.
Listed shares and listed redeemable notes held by the Company that are traded in an active market are classified as AFS and are stated at fair value. The Company has investments in unlisted shares that are not traded in an active market that are also classified as investments AFS and stated at fair value (because Company management considers that fair value can be reliably measured). Gains and losses arising from changes in fair value are recognized in other comprehensive income/(loss) and are included in accumulated other comprehensive loss, with the exception of other-than-temporary impairment losses, interest calculated using the effective interest method, dividend income and foreign exchange gains and losses, which are recognized in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of other Comprehensive Income. When the investment is disposed of or is determined to be impaired, the cumulative gain or loss previously accumulated in the investments’ revaluation reserve is then reclassified to Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of other Comprehensive Income.
Financial assets are classified as trading securities if the financial asset has been acquired principally for the purpose of selling it in the near term.
Trading securities are stated at fair value, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognized in revenue. Changes in fair value are recognized in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income and included in net gain on trading securities. Interest earned and dividend income are recognized in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income and are included in interest income, according to the terms of the contract and when the right to receive the payment has been established.
Investments in nonconsolidated managed funds are accounted for at fair value based on the net asset value (“NAV”) of the funds provided by the fund managers with gains or losses included in net gain on trading securities in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income.
Debt securities issued
Debt securities issued are initially recognized at the fair value of the consideration received, less directly attributable transaction costs. Subsequently, amounts due are stated at amortized cost and any difference between net proceeds and the redemption value is recognized over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest method. If the Company purchases its own debt, it is removed from the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and the difference between the carrying amount of the liability and the consideration paid is recognized in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income.
Brokerage and other receivables
Brokerage and other receivables are comprised of commissions and receivables related to the securities brokerage and banking activity of the Company. At initial recognition, brokerage and other receivables are recognized at fair value. Subsequently, brokerage and other receivables are carried at cost net of any allowance for impairment losses.
Derecognition of financial assets
A financial asset (or, where applicable a part of a financial asset or a part of a group of similar financial assets) is derecognized when all of the following conditions are met:
Where the Company has not met the asset derecognition conditions above, it continues to recognize the asset to the extent of its continuing involvement.
Impairment of long-lived assets
In accordance with the accounting guidance for the impairment or disposal of long-lived assets, the Company periodically evaluates the carrying value of long-lived assets to be held and used when events and circumstances warrant such a review. The carrying value of a long-lived asset is considered impaired when the fair value from such asset is less than its carrying value. In that event, a loss is recognized based on the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the fair value of the long-lived asset. Fair value is determined primarily using the anticipated cash flows, discounted at a rate commensurate with the risk involved. Losses on long-lived assets to be disposed of are determined in a similar manner, except that fair values are reduced for the cost of disposal. As of December 31, 2020, and March 31, 2020, the Company had not recorded any charges for impairment of long-lived assets.
Impairment of goodwill
The Company performs an impairment review at least annually unless indicators of impairment exist in interim periods. The impairment test for goodwill uses a two-step approach. Step one compares the estimated fair value of a reporting unit with goodwill to its carrying value. If the carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value, step two must be performed. Step two compares the carrying value of the reporting unit to the fair value of all of the assets and liabilities of the reporting unit as if the reporting unit was acquired in a business combination. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit’s goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of its goodwill, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to the excess. In its annual goodwill impairment test, the Company estimated the fair value of the reporting unit based on the income approach (also known as the discounted cash flow method) and determined the fair value of the Company’s goodwill exceeded the carrying amount of the Company’s goodwill.
Goodwill as of March 31, 2020, and the changes in the carrying amount of goodwill for the nine months ended December 31, 2020 were as follows:
The Company recognizes deferred tax liabilities and assets based on the difference between the financial statements and tax basis of assets and liabilities using the enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The measurement of deferred tax assets is reduced, if necessary, by the amount of any tax benefits that, based on available evidence, are not expected to be realized.
Current income tax expenses are provided for in accordance with the laws of the relevant taxing authorities. As part of the process of preparing financial statements, the Company is required to estimate its income taxes in each of the jurisdictions in which it operates. The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability approach. Under this method, deferred income taxes are recognized for tax consequences in future years based on differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements at each year-end and tax loss carry forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates applicable for the differences that are expected to affect taxable income.
The Company will include interest and penalties arising from the underpayment of income taxes in the provision for income taxes. As of December 31, 2020, and March 31, 2020, the Company had no accrued interest or penalties related to uncertain tax positions.
The Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”) provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Reform Act”) require the Company to include in its U.S. income tax return foreign subsidiary earnings in excess of an allowable return on the foreign subsidiary’s tangible assets. The Company has presented the deferred tax impacts of GILTI tax in its condensed consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2020, and March 31, 2020.
Financial instruments are carried at fair value as described below.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either in the principal market for the asset or liability, or in the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability. Fair value is the current bid price for financial assets, current ask price for financial liabilities and the average of current bid and ask prices when the Company is both in short and long positions for the financial instrument. A financial instrument is regarded as quoted in an active market if quoted prices are readily and regularly available from an exchange or other institution and those prices represent actual and regularly occurring market transactions on an arm’s length basis.
The Company adopted ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842),” which requires leases with durations greater than twelve months to be recognized on the balance sheet.
The Company adopted the provisions of ASU 2018-11 “Leases (Topic 842),” including the optional transition method and selected practical expedients package as follows:
Operating lease assets and corresponding lease liabilities were recognized on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. Refer to Note 18 - Leases, within the notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements for additional disclosure and significant accounting policies affecting leases.
Fixed assets are carried at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Maintenance, repairs, and minor renewals are expensed as incurred. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range between three and seven years.
The Company operates in a single operating segment offering financial services to its customers in a single geographic region covering Eurasia. The Company’s financial services business provides retail securities brokerage, research, investment counseling, securities trading, market making, corporate investment banking and underwriting services to its customers. The Company generates revenue from customers primarily from fee and commission income and interest income. The Company does not use profitability reports or other information disaggregated on a regional, country or divisional basis for making business decisions.
Recent accounting pronouncements
In June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments”, which introduced an expected credit loss methodology for the impairment of financial assets measured at amortized cost basis. That methodology replaces the probable, incurred loss model for those assets. In November 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-10 “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), and Leases (Topic 842)”. The Board developed a philosophy to extend and simplify how effective dates are staggered between larger public companies (bucket one) and all other entities (bucket two). Those other entities include private companies, smaller public companies, not-for-profit organizations, and employee benefit plans. Under this philosophy, a major update would first be effective for bucket-one entities, that is, public business entities that are Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filers, excluding entities eligible to be smaller reporting companies (SRCs) under the SEC’s definition. The Master Glossary of the Codification defines public business entities and U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) filers. All other entities, including SRCs, other public business entities, and nonpublic business entities (private companies, not-for-profit organizations, and employee benefit plans) would compose bucket two. For those entities, it is anticipated that the Board will consider requiring an effective date staggered at least two years after bucket one for major updates. The Company is currently an SRC and according to ASU 2019-10, qualifies for bucket two. Accordingly, ASU 2016-13 and ASU 2017-12 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2016-13 and 2017-12 will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2020, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2020-06, “Debt - Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40)”: Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity.” This ASU amends FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC” or the “Codification”) to simplify the guidance on (1) accounting for convertible instruments, and (2) the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity. The Board issued this update to address issues identified as a result of the complexity associated with applying generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity. Complexity associated with the accounting is a significant contributing factor to numerous financial statement restatements and results in complexity for users attempting to understand the results of applying the current guidance. In addressing the complexity, the Board focused on amending the guidance on convertible instruments and the guidance on the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity. ASU 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after August 5, 2020. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2020-06 will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In October 2020, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2020-09, Debt (Topic 470): Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Release No. 33-10762, which amends various Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) paragraphs in the FASB Accounting Standards Codification based on the issuance of SEC Final Rulemaking Release No. 33-10762, Financial Disclosures about Guarantors and Issuers of Guaranteed Securities and Affiliates Whose Securities Collateralize a Registrant’s Securities. Release No. 33-10762 amends Rules 3-10, Financial Statements of Guarantors and Issuers of Guaranteed Securities Registered or Being Registered, and 3-16 of Regulation S-X, Financial Statements of Affiliates Whose Securities Collateralize an Issue Registered or Being Registered, both of which apply mainly to specific types of registered debt offerings. The amendments, which are the result of the SEC’s ongoing, comprehensive evaluation of its existing disclosure requirements, are intended to (1) make the disclosures required by the rules more useful to investors and to simplify and streamline the disclosure obligations imposed on registrants; (2) encourage issuers to offer registered guaranteed or collateralized securities, thereby potentially providing investors protection they may not be afforded in offerings conducted on an unregistered basis; and (3) increase the number of registered offerings that include guarantees as credit enhancements, which could result in a lower cost of capital for issuers and an increased level of protection for investors. ASU 2020-09 is effective for fiscal years beginning after January 4, 2021. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2020-09 will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
Revision of Previously Issued Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
Certain amounts in the prior year condensed consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the previously reported net income. The table below details the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income reclassifications:
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef