Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)


9 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Freedom Holding Corp. (the "Company" or "FRHC") is a corporation organized in the United States under the laws of the State of Nevada that through its operating subsidiaries provides financial services including retail securities brokerage, research, investment counseling, securities trading, market making, retail banking, corporate investment banking and underwriting services, commercial banking and insurance products. The Company is headquartered in Almaty, Kazakhstan, with supporting administrative office locations in Cyprus, the United States and Russia (with the Russian business classified as discontinued operations pending sale). The Company has retail locations in Kazakhstan, Russia (with the Russian business classified as discontinued operations pending sale), Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Cyprus, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, France, Germany, the United Arab Emirates and Turkey. The Company also has a subsidiary in the United States which is a U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") registered broker dealer. The Company's common stock trades on the Nasdaq Capital Market, KASE, AIX and SPBX.

As of December 31, 2022, the Company owned directly, or through subsidiaries, the following companies:

Freedom Finance JSC, an Almaty, Kazakhstan-based securities broker-dealer ("Freedom KZ");
Freedom Finance Global PLC, an Astana International Financial Centre-based securities broker-dealer ("Freedom Global");
Bank Freedom Finance Kazakhstan JSC, an Almaty, Kazakhstan-based bank ("Freedom Bank KZ");
Freedom Finance Life JSC, an Almaty, Kazakhstan-based life/health insurance company ("Freedom Life");
Freedom Finance Insurance JSC, an Almaty, Kazakhstan-based general insurance company ("Freedom Insurance");
Freedom Finance Special Purpose Company LTD, an Astana International Financial Centre-based special purpose company ("Freedom SPC");
Freedom Finance Commercial LLP, a Kazakhstan-based sales consulting company ("Freedom Commercial");
Freedom Finance Europe Limited, a Limassol, Cyprus-based broker-dealer ("Freedom EU");
Freedom Finance Technologies Ltd, a Limassol, Cyprus-based IT development company ("Freedom Technologies");
Freedom Finance Germany GmbH, a Berlin, Germany-based tied agent of Freedom EU ("Freedom GE");
Freedom UK Prime Limited, a London, United Kingdom-based financial intermediary company ("Prime UK");
Freedom Finance Uzbekistan LLC, a Tashkent, Uzbekistan-based broker-dealer ("Freedom UZ");
Freedom Finance Azerbaijan LLC, an Azerbaijan-based financial educational center ("Freedom AZ");
Freedom Finance Armenia LLC, an Armenia-based broker-dealer ("Freedom AR");
Prime Executions, Inc., a New York City, New York-based NYSE institutional brokerage, that is also authorized to engage in certain capital markets and investment banking activities ("PrimeEx");
FFIN Securities, Inc., a currently-dormant Nevada corporation ("FFIN");
Freedom Finance Ltd., a Dubai, United Arab Emirates-based financial intermediary company ("Freedom UAE");
ITS Tech Limited, an Astana International Financial Centre-based, IT-support company ("ITS Tech");
Freedom Kazakhstan PC Ltd. ("Freedom Kazakhstan PC Ltd.")
Ticketon Events LLP, an Almaty, Kazakhstan-based online ticket sales company ("Ticketon");
Freedom Finance Turkey LLC, an Istanbul, Turkiye-based financial consulting company ("Freedom TR");
Investment Company Freedom Finance LLC, a Moscow, Russia-based securities broker-dealer ("Freedom RU");
FFIN Bank LLC, a Moscow, Russia-based bank ("Freedom Bank RU"); and
Freedom Finance Auto LLC, a Russia-based car loans company ("Freedom Auto").

The Company also owns a 9% interest in Freedom Finance Ukraine LLC, a Kiev, Ukraine-based broker-dealer ("Freedom UA"). The remaining 91% interest in Freedom UA is controlled by Askar Tashtitov, the Company's president. The Company has entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Freedom UA and Mr. Tashtitov, including a consulting services agreement, an operating agreement and an option agreement.

Because such agreements obligate the Company to guarantee the performance of all Freedom UA obligations and provide Freedom UA sufficient funding to cover all Freedom UA operating losses and net capital requirements, enable the Company to receive 90% of the net profits of Freedom UA after tax, and require the Company to provide Freedom UA the
management competence, operational support, and ongoing access to the Company's significant assets, necessary technology resources and expertise to conduct the business of Freedom UA, the Company determined that Freedom UA is a variable interest entity ("VIE"). Accordingly, the Company consolidated Freedom UA into the financial statements of the Company.

Prior to July 2021, the Company controlled approximately 32.9% of Freedom UA, but due to changes to Ukrainian regulations to restrict foreign ownership of registered Ukrainian broker-dealers, in July 2021, the Company was required to sell approximately 23.9% of its equity interest in Freedom UA to Mr. Tashtitov, reducing the Company's direct ownership interest in Freedom UA to approximately 9%.

The Company has entered into an agreement to sell its Russian subsidiaries, Freedom RU and Freedom Bank RU. For financial information regarding the Company's Russian subsidiaries see Note 25 - Assets and Liabilities held for sale and Divestiture of our Russian Subsidiaries in the Overview section of Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q. The sale of the Company's Russian subsidiaries was approved by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation on February 10, 2023, and the sale is expected to be completed before the end of February 2023.

In July 2022, Freedom RU established a Russian subsidiary Freedom Finance Auto LLC. In January 2023, Freedom RU concluded an agreement with Maxim Povalishin to sell Freedom Finance Auto LLC for RUB 50 million (approximately $695 based on the applicable currency exchange rate on the reporting date). On February 7, 2023, the sale of Freedom Finance Auto LLC was completed.
Through its subsidiaries, the Company is a professional participant, with a license to provide one or more types of services, on a number of stock exchanges, including the Kazakhstan Stock Exchange (KASE), the Astana International Stock Exchange (AIX), the Moscow Exchange (MOEX), the Saint-Petersburg Exchange (SPBX), the Ukrainian Exchange (UX), the Republican Stock Exchange of Tashkent (UZSE) and the Uzbek Republican Currency Exchange (UZCE) and is a member of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the Nasdaq Stock Exchange (Nasdaq). The Company also owns a 24.3% interest in the UX. Freedom EU provides the Company's clients with operational support and access to investment opportunities in the U.S. and European securities markets.
On October 19, 2022, Freedom UA's brokerage license was suspended for a period of five years and its assets were frozen by the Ukrainian authorities following its inclusion on a sanctions list of the Ukrainian government. As of December 31, 2022, Freedom UA's total assets and total liabilities of $7,835 and $7,284, respectively, were reclassified to restricted assets and liabilities as part of other assets and other liabilities, respectively. The Company believes that the decision to include Freedom UA on such list was erroneous and it is in the process of appealing such decision.
Unless otherwise specifically or contextually indicated, the “Company” refers to FRHC, together with its consolidated subsidiaries.