SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|9 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The Company's accounting policies and accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements conform to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP).
Basis of presentation and principles of consolidation
The condensed consolidated financial statements present the condensed consolidated accounts of FRHC and its consolidated subsidiaries. In the opinion of management, all normal, recurring adjustments necessary for fair presentation of the condensed consolidated financial statements have been included.
Consolidation of variable interest entities
In accordance with accounting standards regarding consolidation of variable interest entities ("VIEs"), VIEs are generally entities that lack sufficient equity to finance their activities without additional subordinated financial support from other
parties or whose equity holders at risk lack adequate decision making ability. VIEs must be evaluated to determine the primary beneficiary of the risks and rewards of the VIE. The primary beneficiary is required to consolidate the VIE for financial reporting purposes. As of and for the three and nine months ended December 31, 2022, the only VIE of the Company was Freedom UA.
The carrying amounts of the VIE’s consolidated assets and liabilities are as follows:
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Management believes that the estimates utilized in preparing the Company's financial statements are reasonable and prudent. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Revenue and expense recognition
Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASC Topic 606"), establishes principles for reporting information about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from the entity's contracts to provide goods or services to customers. The core principle requires an entity to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services promised to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that it expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for those goods or services recognized as performance obligations are satisfied. A significant portion of the Company's revenue-generating transactions are not subject to ASC Topic 606, including revenue generated from financial instruments, such as loans and investment securities, as these activities are subject to other U.S. GAAP guidance discussed elsewhere within these disclosures. Descriptions of the Company's revenue-generating activities that are within the scope of ASC Topic 606, which are presented in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income as components of total revenue, net are as follows:
•Commissions on brokerage services;
•Commissions on banking services (money transfers, foreign exchange operations and other); and
•Commissions on investment banking services (underwriting, market making, and bondholders' representation services).
Gross Versus Net Revenue
ASC 606 provides guidance on proper recognition of principal versus agent considerations which is used to determine gross versus net revenue recognition. Under ASC 606, the core objective of the guidance on gross versus net revenue recognition is to help determine whether the Company is a principal or an agent in a transaction. In general, the primary difference between these two is the performance obligation being satisfied. The principal has a performance obligation to provide the desired goods or services to the end customer, whereas the agent arranges for the principal to provide the desired goods or services. Additionally, a fundamental characteristic of a principal in a transaction is control. A principal substantively controls the goods and services before they are transferred to the customer as well as controls the price of the good or service being provided. An agent normally receives a commission or fee for these activities. In addition to control, the level at which the Com controls the price of the good or service being transferred determines principal versus agent status. The more discretion over setting price a company has in providing the good or service, the more likely they are considered a principal rather than an agent.
In certain cases, other parties are involved with providing products and services to our customers. If the Company is principal in the transaction (providing goods or services itself), revenues are reported based on the gross consideration received from the customer and any related expenses are reported gross in noninterest expense. If the Company is an agent in the transaction (arranging for another party to provide goods or services), the Company reports its net fee or commission retained as revenue.
Interest income on margin loans, loans issued, trading securities, available-for-sale securities and reverse repurchase agreement obligations is recognized based on the contractual provisions of the underlying arrangements.
Loan premiums and discounts are deferred and generally amortized into interest income as yield adjustments over the contractual life and/or commitment period using the effective interest method.
Unamortized premiums, discounts and other basis adjustments on trading securities are generally recognized in interest income over the contractual lives of the securities using the effective interest method.
The Company's loan portfolio is divided into: mortgages, uncollateralized bank customer loans, collateralized bank customer loans, car loans and subordinated loans. Mortgage loans consist of loans provided to individuals to purchase real estate, which is used as collateral for the loan. Uncollateralized bank customer loans consist of loans provided through credit cards to individuals and retail unsecured banking loans provided to individuals. Collateralized bank customer loans consist of retail collateralized loans provided to individuals. Subordinated loans consist of uncollateralized loans provided to the legal entities to support their businesses, that ranks below other, more senior loans or securities with respect to claims on assets or earnings. Margin loans are not classified as part of the Company's loan portfolio and are instead recorded on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets under Margin lending, brokerage and other receivables, net.
All purchased loans are initially recorded at fair value, which includes consideration of expected future losses, at the date of the loan acquisition. To determine the fair value of loans at the date of acquisition, the Company estimates the discounted contractual cash flows due using an observable market rate of interest, adjusted for factors such as probable default rates of the borrowers, and the loan terms that a market participant would consider in determining fair value. In determining fair value, contractual cash flows are adjusted to include prepayment estimates based upon historical payment trends, forecasted default rates and loss severities and other relevant factors. The difference between the fair value and the contractual cash flows is recorded as a loan premium or discount, which may relate to either credit or non-credit factors, at acquisition.
The Company accounts for purchased loans under the accounting guidance for purchased financial assets with credit deterioration when, at the time of purchase, the loans have experienced a more-than-insignificant deterioration in credit quality since origination.
The Company recognizes an allowance for credit losses on purchased loans that have not experienced a more-than-insignificant deterioration in credit quality since origination at the time of purchase through earnings in a manner that is consistent with originated loans. The policies relating to the allowance for credit losses on loans is described below in the "Estimate of Incurred Loan Losses" section of this Note.
Estimate of Incurred Loan Losses
The allowance represents management's current estimate of incurred loan losses inherent in the Company's loan portfolio as of each balance sheet date. The provision for credit losses reflects credit losses the Company believes have been incurred and will eventually be recognized over time through charge-offs.
Management performed a quarterly analysis of the Company's loan portfolio to determine if impairment had occurred and to assess the adequacy of the allowance based on historical and current trends as well as other factors affecting credit losses. The Company applied separate calculations of the allowances for its credit cards, mortgages and retail loan portfolios. Based on the adopted methodology, the Company estimated the probability of default based on historical default rates, adjusted for certain macro indicators, such as GDP, average exchange rates, unemployment rate, real wage index, inflation rate and retail trade index. Loss given default is calculated based on the collateral coverage of the loans. The Company's allowance for loan losses consists of two components that are allocated to cover the estimated probable losses in each loan portfolio based on the results of the Company's detailed review and loan impairment assessment process a component for loans collectively evaluated for impairment.
Derivative financial instruments
In the normal course of business, the Company invests in various derivative financial contracts including futures. Derivatives are initially recognized at fair value at the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured to their fair value at each reporting date. The fair values are estimated based on quoted market prices or pricing models that take into account the current market and contractual prices of the underlying instruments and other factors. Derivatives are carried as assets when their fair value is positive and as liabilities when it is negative.
Management has adopted ASC 830, Foreign Currency Translation Matters as it pertains to its foreign currency translation. The Company's functional currencies are the Kazakhstan tenge, the Russian ruble, the euro, the U.S. dollar, the Ukrainian hryvnia, the Uzbekistani som, the Kyrgyzstani som, the Azerbaijani manat, the British pound sterling, the Armenian dram, the United Arab Emirates dirham and the Turkish lira, and its reporting currency is the U.S. dollar. For financial reporting purposes, foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars as the reporting currency. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars using the exchange rate prevailing at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at rates of exchange in effect at the date of the transaction. Average quarterly rates are used to translate revenues and expenses. Translation adjustments arising from the use of different exchange rates from period to period are included as a component of shareholders' equity as "Accumulated other comprehensive loss". The Company uses exchange rates from the National Bank of the Republic of Kazakhstan for foreign currency translation purposes.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents are generally comprised of certain highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase. Cash and cash equivalents include those reverse repurchase agreements, where maturity is less than 90 days, and the credit risk of the counterparty is low, which are recorded at the amounts at which the securities were acquired plus accrued interest.
Securities reverse repurchase and repurchase agreements
A reverse repurchase agreement is a transaction in which the Company purchases financial instruments from a seller, typically in exchange for cash, and simultaneously enters into an agreement to resell the same or substantially the same financial instruments to the seller for an amount equal to the cash or other consideration exchanged plus interest at a future date. Securities purchased under reverse repurchase agreements are accounted for as collateralized financing transactions and are recorded at the contractual amount for which the securities will be resold, including accrued interest. Financial instruments purchased under reverse repurchase agreements are recorded in the financial statements as cash placed on deposit collateralized by securities and classified as cash and cash equivalents in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
A repurchase agreement is a transaction in which the Company sells financial instruments to another party, typically in exchange for cash, and simultaneously enters into an agreement to reacquire the same or substantially the same financial instruments from the buyer for an amount equal to the cash or other consideration exchanged plus interest at a future date. These agreements are accounted for as collateralized financing transactions. The Company retains the financial instruments sold under repurchase agreements and classifies them as trading securities in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The cash consideration received under repurchase agreements is classified as securities repurchase agreement obligations in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The Company enters into reverse repurchase agreements, repurchase agreements, securities borrowed and securities loaned transactions to, among other things, acquire securities to leverage and grow its proprietary trading portfolio, cover short positions and settle other securities obligations, to accommodate customers' needs and to finance its inventory positions. The Company enters into these transactions in accordance with normal market practice. Under standard terms for repurchase transactions, the recipient of collateral has the right to sell or repledge the collateral, subject to returning equivalent securities on settlement of the transaction.
Financial assets categorized as available-for-sale ("AFS") are non-derivatives that are either designated as available-for-sale or not classified as (a) loans and receivables, (b) held to maturity investments or (c) trading securities.
Gains and losses arising from changes in fair value are recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in the Accumulated other comprehensive loss, with the exception of other-than-temporary impairment losses, interest calculated using the effective interest method, and foreign exchange gains and losses are recognized in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income. When the investment is disposed of or is determined to be impaired, the cumulative gain or loss previously accumulated in the accumulated other comprehensive (loss)/income is then reclassified to net realized gain/(loss) on investments available-for-sale in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income.
Financial assets are classified as trading securities if the financial asset has been acquired principally for the purpose of selling it in the near term.
Trading securities are stated at fair value, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognized in revenue. Changes in fair value are recognized in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income and included in net gain on trading securities. Interest earned and dividend income are recognized in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income and included in interest income, according to the terms of the contract and when the right to receive the payment has been established.
Investments in nonconsolidated managed funds are accounted for at fair value based on the net asset value of the funds provided by the fund managers with gains or losses included in net gain on trading securities in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income.
Debt securities issued
Debt securities issued are initially recognized at the fair value of the consideration received, less directly attributable transaction costs. Subsequently, amounts due are stated at amortized cost and any difference between net proceeds and the redemption value is recognized over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest method. If the Company purchases its own debt it is removed from the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and the difference between the carrying amount of the liability and the consideration paid is recognized in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income.
Margin lending, brokerage and other receivables
The Company engages in securities financing transactions with and for clients through margin lending. In margin lending, the Company's customers borrow funds from the Company against the value of their qualifying securities, primarily for the purpose of purchasing additional securities. Under these agreements, the Company is permitted to sell or repledge securities received as collateral. Furthermore, the Company can use the collateral for repurchase agreement operations, securities lending transactions or delivery to counterparties to cover short positions.
Margin lending, brokerage and other receivables comprise margin lending receivables, brokerage commissions and other receivables related to the securities brokerage and banking activity of the Company. At initial recognition, margin lending, brokerage and other receivables are recognized at fair value. Subsequently, margin lending, brokerage and other receivables are carried at cost net of any allowance for impairment losses.
Derecognition of financial assets
A financial asset (or, where applicable a part of a financial asset or a part of a group of similar financial assets) is derecognized where all of the following conditions are met:
•The transferred financial assets have been isolated from the Company - put presumptively beyond the reach of the Company and its creditors, even in bankruptcy or other receivership.
•The transferee has rights to pledge or exchange financial assets.
•The Company or its agents do not maintain effective control over the transferred financial assets or third-party beneficial interests related to those transferred assets.
Where the Company has not met the asset derecognition conditions above, it continues to recognize the asset to the extent of its continuing involvement.
Impairment of long-lived assets
In accordance with the accounting guidance for the impairment or disposal of long-lived assets, the Company periodically evaluates the carrying value of long-lived assets to be held and used when events and circumstances warrant such a review. The carrying value of a long-lived asset is considered impaired when the fair value from such asset is less than its carrying value. In that event, a loss is recognized based on the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the fair value of the long-lived asset. Fair value is determined primarily using the anticipated cash flows discounted at a rate commensurate with the risk involved. Losses on long-lived assets to be disposed of are determined in a similar manner, except that fair values are reduced for the cost of disposal. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2022, the Company write-off the client base that was recognized with the Company's acquisition of Zerich in the amount of $3,125 due to economic uncertainty during the Company's fourth fiscal quarter stemming from the Russia/Ukraine Conflict. During the nine months ended December 31, 2022, there were no write-offs.
Impairment of goodwill
As of December 31, 2022, and March 31, 2022, goodwill recorded in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets totaled $9,460 and $5,898, respectively. The Company performs an impairment review at least annually unless indicators of impairment exist in interim periods. The entity compares the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. The goodwill impairment charge recognized for the amount by which the reporting unit’s carrying amount exceeds its fair value. If fair value exceeds the carrying amount, no impairment is recorded. In its annual goodwill impairment test, the Company estimated the fair value of the reporting unit based on the income approach (also known as the discounted
cash flow method) and determined the fair value of the Company’s goodwill previously recognized for Freedom Bank RU, Freedom UA and Zerich is below of the carrying amount of the Company’s goodwill. The Company recognized impairment loss for the goodwill in the amount of $2,300 as of March 31, 2022, and presented goodwill, net of impairment loss in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. During the nine months ended December 31, 2022, the Company did not recognize additional impairment loss for the goodwill.
The carrying amount of goodwill on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2022, increased compared to March 31, 2022, due to the Company's acquisition of London Almaty and Ticketon.
The changes in the carrying amount of goodwill as of March 31, 2022, and as of December 31, 2022, were as follows:
Asset and Liabilities Held for Sale
The Company classifies assets and liabilities (the "disposal group") as held for sale in the period when all of the relevant criteria to be classified as held for sale are met. Criteria include management commitment to sell the disposal group in its present condition and the sale being deemed probable of being completed within one year. Assets held for sale are reported at the lower of their carrying value or fair value less cost to sell. Any loss resulting from the measurement is recognized in the period the held for sale criteria are met. The Company assesses the fair value of a disposal group, less any costs to sell, each reporting period it remains classified as held for sale and reports any subsequent changes as an adjustment to the carrying value of the disposal group, as long as the new carrying value does not exceed the initial carrying value of the disposal group. Assets held for sale are not amortized or depreciated. During the three months ended December 31, 2022, the Company accrued provision for impairment of discontinued operations by an amount of $2,509. As a result, the provision for impairment of discontinued operations, within the line item Net income from discontinued operation on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations, amounted to $43,973 as of December 31, 2022.
A disposal group that represents a strategic shift to the Company or is acquired with the intention to sell is reflected as a discontinued operation on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operation and Statement of Other Comprehensive Income and prior periods are recast to reflect the earnings or losses as income from discontinued operations. The Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes reflect the securities brokerage and complementary banking operations in Russia as discontinued operations as the Company has entered into an agreement to divest these operations. The sale of these operations was approved by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation on February 10, 2023, and the sale is expected to be completed before the end of February 2023.
See Note 25 Assets and Liabilities held for sale, for more information on assets held for sale and discontinued operations.
The Company recognizes deferred tax liabilities and assets based on the difference between the financial statements and tax basis of assets and liabilities using the enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The measurement of deferred tax assets is reduced, if necessary, by the amount of any tax benefits that, based on available evidence, are not expected to be realized.
Current income tax expenses are provided for in accordance with the laws of the relevant taxing authorities. As part of the process of preparing financial statements, the Company is required to estimate its income taxes in each of the jurisdictions in which it operates. The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability approach. Under this method,
deferred income taxes are recognized for tax consequences in future years based on differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements at each year-end and tax loss carry forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates applicable for the differences that are expected to affect taxable income.
The Company records uncertain tax positions in accordance with ASC 740 on the basis of a two-step process in which (1) the Company determines whether it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained on the basis of the technical merits of the position and (2) for those tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, the Company recognizes the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50 percent likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement with the related tax authority.
The Company will include interest and penalties arising from the underpayment of income taxes in the provision for income taxes (if anticipated). As of December 31, 2022, and March 31, 2022, the Company had no accrued interest or penalties related to uncertain tax positions.
The Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”) provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act require the Company to include in its U.S. income tax return foreign subsidiary earnings in excess of an allowable return on the foreign subsidiary’s tangible assets. The Company has presented the deferred tax impacts of GILTI tax in its Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2022, and March 31, 2022, and in its Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three and nine months ended December 31, 2022, and 2021.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either in the principal market for the asset or liability, or in the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability. Fair value is the current bid price for financial assets, current ask price for financial liabilities and the average of current bid and ask prices when the Company is both in short and long positions for the financial instrument. A financial instrument is regarded as quoted in an active market if quoted prices are readily and regularly available from an exchange or other institution and those prices represent actual and regularly occurring market transactions on an arm’s length basis.
The Company follows ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842)”, which requires leases with durations greater than twelve months to be recognized on the balance sheet.
Operating lease assets and corresponding lease liabilities were recognized on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Refer to Note 23 Leases, to the condensed consolidated financial statements for additional disclosure and significant accounting policies affecting leases.
Fixed assets are carried at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Maintenance, repairs, and minor renewals are expensed as incurred. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range between and sixty-five years.
Insurance contract assets and liabilities
Insurance and reinsurance receivable
Insurance and reinsurance receivable is recognized when related income is earned and measured on initial recognition at the fair value of the consideration receivable. Subsequent to initial recognition, any insurance and reinsurance receivable is measured at cost net of any allowance for impairment losses.
Insurance and reinsurance payable
Payables on insurance business comprise advances received, amounts payable to insured (claims and premium refund payable) and amounts payable to agents and brokers, and advances received from insurers and reinsurers.
Payables on reinsurance business comprise net amounts payable to reinsurers. Amounts payable to reinsurers include ceded reinsurance premiums, assumed premium refunds and claims on assumed reinsurance. Insurance and reinsurance payable are accounted for at amortized cost.
Unearned premium reserve and claims
Unearned premium is determined by the method of proportion for each contract, as the product of the insurance premium under the contract for the ratio of the expiration of the insurance cover (in days) to the balance sheet date (in days) from the date of recognition of the insurance premium in accounting as income until the end of the insurance coverage. The reinsurer's share in the unearned premium reserve is calculated separately for each insurance (reinsurance) contract and is determined as the ratio of the insurance premium under the reinsurance contract to the insurance premium under the insurance contract multiplied by the unearned premium reserve.
Results of insurance activity includes net written insurance premiums reduced by the net change in the unearned premium reserve, commissions recognized from assumed insurance and reinsurance contracts, claims paid net and net change in the loss reserves.
Net written insurance premiums represent gross written premiums less premiums ceded to reinsurers. Upon inception of a contract (except for classes of life and annuity insurance), premiums are recorded as written and are earned on a pro rata basis over the term of the related contract coverage. The unearned premium reserve represents the portion of the premiums written relating to the unexpired terms of coverage and is included in the accompanying statement of Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Unearned premium reserve relates to non-life insurance products and non-annuity insurance products.
Claims are expensed to the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Statements of Other Comprehensive Income as incurred.
Non-life and general insurance
Loss reserves are a summary of estimates of ultimate losses, and include both claims reported but not settled (RBNS) and claims incurred but not reported (IBNR). RBNS is created for existing reported claims not settled at the reporting date. Estimates are made on the basis of information received by the Company during its investigation of insured events. IBNR is estimated by the Company based on its previous history of reported/settled claims using actuarial methods of calculation, which include claim development triangles.
Reinsurance assets in IBNR are estimated applying the same actuarial method used in IBNR estimation.
Not incurred claims reserves (NIC) on life insurance contracts equal the NIC amount for all life insurance contracts valid as at the reporting date. NIC reserve on a separate contract of life insurance is equal to the maximum value of the net level premium reserve and gross-premium reserve. Net level premium reserve is the present value of future benefits (excluding survival benefits) less present value of future net premiums. Gross-premium reserve is present value of benefits, expenses of the Company that are directly related to consideration, settlement, and determination of the benefit amount, operating expenses of the Company related to conducting of the business, less present value of future gross-premiums.
NIC reserve on annuity contracts is the sum of the present value of future benefits, the claims for annuity insurance and administrative expenses on annuity insurance contracts maintenance, less the present value of insurance contributions (in case of lump sum - insurance premium), which the Company is due to receive after the settlement date.
The reserves are either based on current assumptions or calculated using the assumptions established at the time the contract was issued, in which case a margin for risk and adverse deviation is generally included.
Historically, the Company's chief operating decision maker ("CODM"), who is its chief executive officer, viewed the Company as a single operating segment offering financial services to its customers in a single geographic region covering Eurasia. During the fourth quarter of the Company's fiscal year ended March 31, 2022, the CODM restructured the Company's operations into five geographical regions ("segments"). These regions include Central Asia, Europe, the U.S., Russia and Middle East/Caucasus.
In order to determine appropriate segment disclosure as stated in ASC 280-10-55-26 the Company followed the steps outlined below:
•identified operating segments using the management approach;
•determined whether two or more operating segments may be aggregated into a single operating segment;
•applied the quantitative thresholds and other criteria to determine reportable segments;
•considered what information should be disclosed for each reportable segment; and
•considered what information should be disclosed on an entity-wide basis.
Recent accounting pronouncements
In June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-13, "Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments", which introduced an expected credit loss methodology for the impairment of financial assets measured at amortized cost basis. That methodology replaces the probable, incurred loss model for those assets. In November 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-10 "Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), and Leases (Topic 842)". The Board developed a philosophy to extend and simplify how effective dates are staggered between larger public companies (bucket one) and all other entities (bucket two). Those other entities include private companies, smaller public companies, not-for-profit organizations, and employee benefit plans. Under this philosophy, a major update would first be effective for bucket-one entities, that is, public business entities that are SEC filers, excluding entities eligible to be smaller reporting companies (SRCs) under the SEC's definition. The Master Glossary of the Codification defines public business entities and SEC filers. All other entities, including SRCs, other public business entities, and nonpublic business entities (private companies, not-for-profit organizations, and employee benefit plans) would compose bucket two. For those entities, it is anticipated that the Board will consider requiring an effective date staggered at least two years after bucket one for major updates. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2016-13 and 2017-12 will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2021, the FASB issued Accounting Standard Update No 2021-06 "Presentation of Financial Statements (Topic 205), Financial Services — Depository and Lending (Topic 942), and Financial Services — Investment Companies (Topic 946)" which amends various SEC paragraphs pursuant to the issuance of SEC Release No. 33-10786, Amendments to Financial Disclosures about Acquired and Disposed Businesses. SEC issued Final Rulemaking Release No. 33-10786, Amendments to Financial Disclosures about Acquired and Disposed Businesses, which modified the disclosure and presentation requirements concerning acquisitions and disposals of businesses. Primarily, the new rules amended (1) Rule 1-02(w) of Regulation S-X, Definition of Terms Used in Regulation S-X, Significant Subsidiary, (2) Rule 3-05 of Regulation S-X, Financial Statements of Businesses Acquired or to Be Acquired, (3) Rule 8-05 of Regulation S-X, Pro Forma Financial Information (which covers smaller reporting companies), and (4) Article 11 of Regulation S-X, Pro Forma Financial Information. In addition, new Rule 6-11 of Regulation S-X, Financial Statements of Funds Acquired or to Be Acquired, covering acquisitions specific to investment companies, was added. Corresponding changes were made to other Regulation S-X rules, various Securities Act and Securities Exchange Act rules, and Forms 8-K and 10-K. Compliance with the amended rules is required from the beginning of a registrant's fiscal year commencing after December 31, 2020 (i.e., the mandatory compliance date). Acquisitions and dispositions that are probable or consummated after the mandatory compliance date are required to be evaluated for significance pursuant to the amended rules. Early compliance is permitted,
provided that all the amended rules are applied in their entirety from the early compliance date. ASU No. 2021-06 amends SEC material in the Codification to give effect to Release No. 33-10786. The new rules apply to fiscal years ending on or after December 15, 2021 (i.e., calendar-year 2021). Early voluntary compliance is allowed. Note that the rescission of Industry Guide 3 is effective on January 1, 2023. ASU No. 2021-06 amends SEC material in the Codification to give effect to Release No. 33-10835. The Company does not expect that the ASU 2021-06 will have a significant impact on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In October 2021, the SEC issued the amendment of Business Combinations (Topic 805), No. 2021-08, which related to Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers. The main amendments were concentrated in paragraphs 805-20-25-16 through 25-17 and add paragraph 805-20-25-28C and its related heading, with a link to transition paragraph 805-20-65-3, where the topic provides limited exceptions to the recognition and measurement principles applicable to business combinations. Moreover, the topic amends paragraphs 805-20-30-10 through 30-12 and add paragraphs 805-20-30-27 through 30-30 and their related heading, with a link to transition paragraph 805-20-65-3. Paragraph 805-20-25-16 notes that the Business Combinations Topic provides limited exceptions to the recognition and measurement principles applicable to business combinations. In the topic has been added paragraph 805-20-65-3, in which the following represents the transition and effective date information related to Accounting Standards Update No. 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers: a. For public business entities, this paragraph shall be effective for fiscal years, including interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2021-06 will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In March 2022, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2022-01, "Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Fair Value Hedging-Portfolio Layer Method", which introduces the amendments, which targeted on improvements to the optional hedge accounting model with the objective of improving hedge accounting to better portray the economic results of an entity's risk management activities in its financial statements. The amendments in this Update apply to the Company that elect to apply the portfolio layer method of hedge accounting in accordance with Table of Contents Topic 815. For a closed portfolio of prepayable financial assets or one or more beneficial interests secured by a portfolio of prepayable financial instruments, the last-of-layer method allows an entity to hedge a stated amount of the asset or assets in the closed portfolio that is anticipated to be outstanding for the designated hedge period. If the requirements for the last-of-layer method are met, prepayment risk is not incorporated into the measurement of the hedged item. Accordingly, ASU 2022-01 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. ASU 2022-01 will not have an impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In March 2022, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2022-02, "Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Troubled Debt Restructurings and Vintage Disclosures", which introduces the amendments on solving two issues of creditors related to troubled debt restructurings and gross write-offs of vintage debt disclosures. The amendments in Update 2016-13 require that an entity measure and record the lifetime expected credit losses on an asset that is within the scope of the Update upon origination or acquisition, and, as a result, credit losses from loans modified as troubled debt restructurings (TDRs) have been incorporated into the allowance for credit losses. Investors and preparers observed that the additional designation of a loan modification as a TDR and the related accounting are unnecessarily complex and no longer provide decision-useful information.
Moreover, investors and other financial statement users observed that disclosing gross write-offs by year of origination provides important information that allows them to better understand changes in the credit quality of an entity's loan portfolio and underwriting performance. Accordingly, ASU 2022-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2022-02 will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In June 2022, FASB Issued Accounting Standard Updated No. 2022-03 “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Fair Value Measurement of Equity Securities Subject to Contractual Sale Restrictions”. The FASB has issued this standard to (1) clarify the guidance in Topic 820 – Fair Value Measurement, when measuring the fair value of an equity security subject to contractual restrictions that prohibit the sale of an equity security, (2) to amend a related illustrative example, and (3) to introduce new disclosure requirements for equity securities subject to contractual sale restrictions that are measured at fair value in accordance with Topic 820. The amendments in this update affects all entities that have investments in equity securities measured at fair value that are subject to a contractual sale restriction. For public business entities, the amendments in this Update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2022-03 will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In September 2022, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2022-04 “Liabilities—Supplier Finance Programs (Subtopic 405-50): Disclosure of Supplier Finance Program Obligations” to enhance the transparency of supplier finance programs. This requires all entities, which apply those programs in connection with the purchase of goods and services (buyer party), to disclose qualitative and quantitative information about the use of the finance programs to understand the program’s nature, activity during the period, changes from period to period, and potential magnitude.
Accordingly, ASU 2022-04 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years, except for the amendment on rollforward information, which is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2022-04 will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In December 2022, FASB Issued Accounting Standard Updated No. 2022-05 “Financial Services—Insurance (Topic 944): Targeted Improvements to the Accounting for Long-Duration Contracts (LDTI)”. The amendments in Update 2018-12 require that an insurance entity apply a retrospective transition method as of the beginning of the earliest period presented or the beginning of the prior fiscal year if early application is elected. It amends in this Update the LDTI transition guidance to allow an insurance entity to make an accounting policy election on a transaction-by-transaction basis. The Board is issuing this Update to reduce implementation costs and complexity associated with the adoption of LDTI for contracts that have been derecognized in accordance with the amendments in this Update before the LDTI effective date. Without the amendments an insurance entity would be required to reclassify a portion of the previously recognized gains or losses to the LDTI transition adjustment because of the adoption of a new accounting standard. This Update affects insurance entities that have derecognized contracts before the LDTI effective date. For public business entities that meet the definition of a U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filer and are not smaller reporting companies, LDTI is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early application is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2022-05 will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.In December 2022, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2022-06 “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting”, which provides optional guidance to ease the potential burden in accounting for (or recognizing the effects of) reference rate reform on financial reporting. The objective of the guidance in Topic 848 is to provide temporary relief during the transition period. The Board included a sunset provision within Topic 848 based on expectations of when the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) would cease being published. At the time that Update 2020-04 was issued, the UK Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) had established its intent that it would no longer be necessary to persuade, or compel, banks to submit to LIBOR after December 31, 2021. As a result, the sunset provision was set for December 31, 2022—12 months after the expected cessation date of all currencies and tenors of LIBOR. The amendments in this Update apply to all entities, subject to meeting certain criteria, that have contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued because of reference rate reform. The amendments in this Update are effective for all entities upon issuance of this Update. The Company has evaluated that the Update No. 2022-06 will not have an impact on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.